Explanation Paging and Segmentation

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In Operating System there are many concepts such as: Process Management, File Management, Memory Management and I/O Management. All the above mentioned concepts are very vast and vital in their self. Today I’m writing about the sub topics from Memory Management (Paging and Segmentation).


There are many processes executed by CPU but there should be some memory management for utilizing CPU. When CPU wants to execute a process then, it generates a logical address having info about that process where it resides in physical memory. Paging and Segmentation are the concepts for mapping that logical address to physical address (address of physical memory for process to be executed).


Terms you should know before going to Paging and Segmentation:

Frames: these are the equal sized parts into which main memory is divided.

Pages: these are the equal sized parts into which virtual memory (use the space from secondary storage) is divided. (One page is indicated by a single entry in Page Map Table (PMT).

Segments: these are the different sized parts of main memory. (Considered by base address and an offset).


PAGING

Paging is the concept of using that data which is not in main memory, that data is stored in the form of pages in virtual memory and operating system has capability to handle this type of transferring data from virtual memory to main memory.

Firstly, many processes have stored in main memory in the form of pages and the addresses for those pages are mapped in page map table (PMT). PMT having two values a page number and a frame address. When CPU gives request for any page then first operating system check that in main memory and if not found page fault will occur and operating system would check for that page in virtual memory then, store that page to main memory for further use.

This is the main concept of paging but the flow of checking pages in main memory is explained by below figure. Where,

P is a page number,
D is an offset address and,
F is a frame address

First of all CPU generates a logical address (or virtual address) having two parts, first part consider page number and second part offset. Using page number as an index searching operation would be executed in PMT for finding frame address mapped with given page number. After getting frame address, given offset is added to frame address and finally physical address is generated and from this physical address process is returned to CPU for execution.
paging in memory management - OS



SEGMENTATION

In Segmentation only the main alteration is in frames. Frames are replaced with segments and segments have a base address and size (is, how many addresses come under particular segment). The entry or information of segments is added in segment table, so segment table having three values segment name (or segment no.), segment base address, and segment size.

The logical address generated by CPU having two parts, a segment number and offset. In segmentation firstly the segment number given in logical address mapped within segment table and get base address and size of the segment of main memory. 

After that offset is compared with size of particular segment i.e. offset should be less than retrieved size of segment. If offset is greater than size of particular segment than a fault occur.

After comparison of offset with size of segment, the offset is added with base address of particular segment and physical address will be generated. This physical address is used to retrieve the process from main memory for execution.

segmentation in memory managment - OS (finallygot.com)




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